*
0

Согласование времен и косвенная речь

|

Согласование времен и перевод прямой речи в косвенную

Можно говорить о разных видах согласования времен. Бывает согласование времен в рамках одного сложного предложения, а бывает и в рамках параграфа или даже целого текста. О согласовании прошедших времен можно также почитать на странице сравнения прошедших времен.

Вопрос о согласовании времен возникает только тогда, когда речь идет о прошедших временах. То есть, если говорить о сложноподчиненных предложениях, когда главное предложение в прошедшем времени.

Если в главное предложение в сложноподчиненном предложении стоит в прошедшем времени, то и придаточное, т.е. подчиненное предложение тоже будет в прошедшем. В русском языке предложения в этом случае не согласуются. Главное может быть в прошедшем, но это никак не влияет на время в придаточном предложении.

Все это особенно касается перевода предложений из прямой речи в косвенную.

Итак, при перводе из прямой речи в косвенную, если главное предложение в прошедшем времени, то и подчиненное предложение будет переводиться в различные прошедшие времена по следующей схеме:

Таблица “миграции времен”

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Present Simple

  • “I am tired.” “I love you.”
  • “We don’t like rock music.”
  • “I can swim.”
Past Simple

  • She said she was tired.He said he loved her.
  • They said they didn’t like rock music.
  • He said he could swim.
Present Continuous

  • “I’m reading a book.”
  • “We aren’t watching TV.”
Past Continuous

  • She said she was reading a book.
  • They told us they were not watching TV.
Present Perfect

  • “I’ve passed all my exams.”
  • “I’ve never been to Rome.”
Past Perfect

  • Jack said he had passed all his exams.
  • Mary said she had never been to Rome.
Present Perfect-Continuous

  • “I’ve been waiting for you for half an hour.”
Past Perfect Continuous

  • He told me he had been waiting for me for half an hour.
Past Simple

  • “I was born in Rome.”
  • “I went to the cinema.”
  • “We worked.”
  • “We didn’t know that.”
Past Perfect

  • She mentioned she had been born in Rome.
  • He explained he had gone to the cinema.
  • They told us they had worked.
  • They claimed they hadn’t known that.
Past Continuous

  • “I was sleeping at 5 o’clock.”
  • “We were having dinner.”
Past Perfect Continuous

  • He said he had been sleeping at 5 o’clock.
  • They told me they had been having dinner.
Future Simple

  • “I will help you.”
  • “I won’t forget.”
Future Simple in the Past

  • He told me he would help me.
  • She said she wouldn’t forget.
Future Continuous

  • “I’ll be waiting for you.”
Future Continuous in the Past

  • She said she would be waiting for us.
Future Perfect

  • “I’ll have finished that then.”
Future Perfect in the Past

  • He promised he would have finished it then.

 

На страничке о say/tell можно узнать, в чем между ними разница.

Модальные глаголы меняются в косвенной речи следующим образом:

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
can

  • “I can play the guitar.”
  • “I can’t help you.”
could

  • He said he could play the guitar.
  • He told me he couldn’t help me.
may

  • “I may go out.”
  • “I may not watch TV.”
might

  • She said she might go out.
  • He said he might not watch TV.
will

  • “I will pay you back.”“It won’t hurt.”
would

  • She told me she would pay me back.
  • The doctor told me it wouldn’t hurt.
must

  • “You must wash your hands.”
had to

  • My mum told me I had to wash my hands.
could

  • “I couldn’t come.”
could

  • She said she couldn’t come.
might

  • “It might get dark soon.”
might

  • He said it might get dark soon.
should

  • “You should go to bed early.”
  • “You shouldn’t work so much.”
should

  • He told me I should go to bed early.
  • She told me I shouldn’t work so much.

 

Что касается местоимений, то никакой разницы между русским и английским языками здесь нет.

Например:

I love you.” (Я  тебя люблю.)

He told her that he loved her. (Он сказал ей, что он ее любит.)

Сложнее с обстоятельствами места и времени и некоторыми другими словами. Они меняются, как показано ниже:

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
this

  • “Ann told me this.”
that

  • He said that Ann told him that.
these

  • “I like these pictures.”
those

  • They said they liked those pictures.
here

  • “Jack is here.”
there

  • He told me Jack was there.
now

  • “He’s ill now.”
then

  • They told us he was ill then.
tonight

  • “I want to go out tonight.”
that night

  • He told me he wanted to go out that night.
yesterday

  • “I went there yesterday.”
the day before/the previous day

  • She said he had gone there the day before.
tomorrow

  • “We are leaving tomorrow.”
the next day/the following day

  • They said they were leaving the following day.
last year/month…

  • “She had a baby last year.”
the previous year/month

  • He told me she had had a baby the previous year.
next year/month

  • “I’m getting married next month.”
the following year/month

  • She told me she was getting married the following month.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Опубликовать в LiveJournal
Опубликовать в Мой Мир
Опубликовать в Одноклассники
Опубликовать в Яндекс

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *

Subscribe without commenting

Copyright © 2013-2016 English is Fun! All rights reserved.